Introduction to Fabrics

While #sewing is an important rudimentary #cosplay & #costuming skill, so is knowing a few things about #fabrics, which have different qualities depending upon the materials used & how they were manufactured.

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1. Fabric Basics

What is a fabric? A fabric (which may also be called a textile or cloth) is a flexible material comprised of a series of interconnected fibers. The three most distinguishing features of a fabric are the type of fibers being used, how the fibers were interconnect during the manufacturing process and the overall fabric weight.

Let’s look at fibers and the manufacturing processes first.

1.1 Fibers

Fibers fall under one of two main types: natural or synthetic. These have different properties that can be divided into pros & cons, which we have listed in the following table.

Natural Fibers

Synthetic Fibers

Composition

Come primarily from plants or animals. Created in a laboratory. Usually a petroleum product.

Pros

  • Easy to dye.
  • Absorbant.
  • Breathable.
  • Strong.
  • Wrinkle-resistant.
  • Versatile.

Cons

  • Plant fibers wrinkle easily.
  • Animal fibers are expensive.
  • Not very breathable.
  • Difficult to dye.

Fabrics can also be made from minerals, but since these are not common in clothing or costuming, we’ll leave that to you to research on your own if you choose to do so.

The most common fiber types are listed below:

Fiber Category

Fiber Types (& their sources)

Animal

  • Wool (sheep’s hair)
  • Silk (silk worm’s unwound cocoon)
  • Cashmere (Indian cashmere goat)
  • Angora (Angora rabbit)

Plant

  • Cotton (cotton plant)
  • Linen (flax, a.k.a., linseed)
  • Rayon (wood pulp)
  • Acetate (wood pulp)
  • Hemp (hemp fibers)

Synthetic

  • Nylon (petroleum)
  • Acrylic (petroleum & natural gas)
  • Polyester (petroleum & coal)
  • Spandex (petroleum)
  • Kevlar (aramids)
  • Nomex (aramids)

1.2 Manufacturing Processes

Of the various ways fabrics can be manufactured, the two most common are woven fabrics and knitted fabrics, which are compared in the following table:

Woven Fabrics

Knitted Fabrics

Construction

Constructed by interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing fibers (called the weft) on a frame known as a loom.

Constructed by repeatedly interlacing loops made from a single, long fiber together in multiple rows.

Qualities

  • Minimal stretch.
  • Strong
  • Won’t snag.
  • Easier for beginners to sew.
  • Available in both 2-way & 4-way stretch.
  • Not as strong.
  • Susceptible to snagging.
  • More difficult for beginners to sew.

2. Fabric Weight

The type of fibers, the manufacturing process & how closely packed the fibers are determine a fabric’s weight. Fabric weight is measured as ounces per square yard (oz/yd²) or grams per square meter (GSM). The lighter a fabric is, the more flowing it will be, but it will also the typically be less durable. The heavier a fabric is, the more stiff and durable it will be. Also, the heavier the fabric is, the thicker it may also be depending upon the type of fiber used.

GSM

Fabrics

Lightweight

1 – 150 GSM

0 – 4.4 oz/yd²

  • Organza
  • Chiffon
  • Voile
  • Taffeta
  • Single Jersey
  • Spandex

Medium Weight

150 – 350 GSM

4.4 – 10 oz/yd²

  • Velvet
  • Cambric
  • Sateen
  • Chambray
  • Interlock Jersey

Heavyweight

350+ GSM

10+ oz/yd²

  • Canvas
  • Denim
  • Hessian / Burlap
  • Poplin / Broadcloth

3. Putting It All Together

Having listed the basics about fiber types, manufacturing processes & weights, here’s a more detailed list about each fabric listed above.

3.1 Lightweight Fabrics

Fabric

Fiber Type(s) & Manufacturing Process

Typical Uses

Organza

Woven silk, nylon or polyester
  • Bridal wear
  • Evening wear

Chiffon

Woven silk, nylon or polyester

  • Evening wear
  • Lingerie
  • Blouses
  • Scarves

Voile

Woven cotton, cotton/linen blend or cotton/polyester blend

  • Window treatments
  • Mosquito nets

Taffeta

Woven silk or rayon

  • Ball gowns
  • Wedding dresses
  • Curtains
  • Wall coverings

Single Jersey

Knitted wool, cotton, synthetic fabrics or cotton/synthetic blend

  • T-shirts

Spandex

Knitted spandex or spandex/cotton, spandex/polyester, or other spandex blend

  • Compression clothing
  • Super-hero costumes
  • Tights
  • Zentai
  • Wrestling singlets
  • Active wear
  • Underwear

3.2 Medium Weight Fabrics

Fabric

Fiber Type(s) & Manufacturing Process

Typical Uses

Velvet

Woven tufted rayon/silk blend, silk (rare), cotton (less luxurious), polyester, nylon, acetate or other fibers & blends.
  • Ecclesiastical vestments
  • Royal & state robes
  • Wall hangings

Cambric

Woven linen or cotton

  • Linens
  • Shirts
  • Handkerchiefs
  • Ruffs
  • Lace
  • Needlework

Sateen

Woven cotton, cotton/linen blend or cotton/polyester blend

  • Window treatments
  • Mosquito nets

Chambray

Woven cotton, similar to denim but lighter & with the white weft visible making it lighter in color.

  • Dresses
  • Pants
  • Shirts
  • Sneakers

Interlock Jersey

Knitted wool, cotton, synthetic fabrics or cotton/synthetic blend; similar to single jersey but both sides are identical and it’s thicker

  • Higher end t-shirts
  • Tank tops
  • Camisoles
  • Bridal wear
  • Receiving blankets
  • Dresses
  • Baby’s layette items

3.3 Heavyweight Fabrics

 

Fabric

Fiber Type(s) & Manufacturing Process

Typical Uses

Canvas

Woven cotton, linen or hemp.
  • Handbags
  • Backpacks
  • Electronic device cases
  • Shoes
  • Artist medium

Denim

Woven cotton

  • Blue jeans
  • Shirts
  • Jackets
  • Work clothes
  • Shoes
  • Upholstry
  • Lampshades
  • More

Hessian / Burlap

Woven jute or sisal fibers blended with other vegetable fibers

  • Rope
  • Bags
  • Gunny sacks
  • Rugs
  • Ghillie suits
  • Sand bags

Poplin / Broadcloath

Woven wool, cotton, silk, polyester or a blend of these

  • Dresses
  • Shirts
  • Upholstery

4. Selecting the Right Fabric(s) for a Costume

The first thing you’ll want to ask yourself is where you plan to wear the costume. If you’re only planning to wear the costume on a cool Halloween evening, then going with heavier / less breathable fabrics might be your better option for staying warm.

If you’re planning to wear the costume primarily at comic or anime conventions, then you’ll want to stick to the most breathable fabrics so that you stay cool and comfortable. After that, it also depends on what type of garment(s) you need to make:

  • Pants: linen or denim
  • Shirts & blouses: cotton voile; rayon challis; double gauze; knit; silk; chambray; cotton lawn or linen
  • Skirts: cotton lawn; rayon challis; denim; knit or linen
  • Dresses: cotton voile; cotton lawn; rayon challis; double gauze; knit; silk; satin or linen
  • Superhero costumes: spandex

If you need to dye a fabric, then you definitely want to use a fabric that is made primarily from natural fibers. Do you need to give the fabric a weathered or tattered look, then you’ll probably want to stick to cotton-based fabrics. Other considerations, such as the sewing pattern you’re using for the garment, can also impact the type of fabric to be used, including any color pattern that the fabric has.

References:

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Ever-Changing Rules & Policies for Costumes & Props at Anime & Comic Conventions

As attendee #safety is a very important shared responsibility of comic & anime conventions, conventions establish rules & policies for allowed #costumes & #props. These rules & policies in part reflect local, state & federal laws, as well as any rules & policies of the venue where the convention is taking place. Additional rules & policies may also be instituted by convention organizers.

Invariably, not everyone likes the rules & policies that are established, especially when they change and become more restrictive. What many #cosplayers & #costumers fail to appreciate is that the rules and policies are for everyone’s safety, both physically and emotionally.

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Common Rules & Policies

The most common rules & policies that restrict what a costumer, cosplayer (or any attendee) can wear or have in their possession at an anime or comic convention are as follows:

  • No nudity.
  • No actual firearms, explosive devices, chemicals or devices that can release chemicals or other projectiles.
  • No sharp-bladed metal weapons, such as knives, swords, ninja stars, etc.
  • No sharp points on costumes that can potentially injure others.
  • No dangerous blunt weapons, such as wood or metal baseball bats, or other similar blunt force weapons that aren’t constructed from foam, cardboard or other light-weight materials.

Recent Incidents Involving Safety

Where incidents have occurred, some conventions may institute more restrictive rules and policies that include many more banned items, such as in the aftermath of the man arrested earlier this year at Phoenix Comicon, who was heavily armed with real weapons and extra ammunitions. The more restrictive bans at Phoenix Comicon include the following:

  • Prohibited Items
    The following props and accessories are not permitted at Phoenix Comicon

    • Firearms of any kind regardless of whether it has been emptied, disabled, or otherwise incapacitated, including but not limited to real and replica
      • BB guns
      • cap guns
      • paintball guns
      • nerf guns
      • blowguns
      • water guns
      • pellet guns
      • airsoft guns
      • Toy guns
      • Blasters
      • Any other real or replica weapon that resembles a firearm
    • Tasers
    • Glass Props
    • Stone Props
    • Chainsaws or other gas-powered props
    • Bladed metal or wooden weapons, including but not limited to
      • Axes
      • Daggers
      • Hatchets
      • Knives
      • Swords
      • pocket blades
      • ninja stars
      • metal or wooden shields
      • strung bows
      • bladed or sharp arrows
      • Flails
      • Power and garden tools
      • Claws
    • Real, replica, or simulated explosives, ammunition, and chemical weapons of any kind, including but not limited to
      • Bullets
      • Hand grenades
      • Claymore Mines
      • firecrackers
      • pepper spray
      • Mace
      • Powder caps
      • Cartoon bombs
      • Simulated bomb vests
    • Metal, spiked, wooden and other miscellaneous props including but not limited to
      • Metal Armor
      • Barbed wire
      • Metal spikes
      • Nunchucks
      • Metal, wooden, aluminum, or heavy plastic bats
      • Slingshots
      • Brass knuckles
      • Golf Clubs
      • Hockey Sticks
    • Excessively noisy props including but not limited to
      • Airhorns
      • Bullhorns
      • Whistles

One surprising item that appeared on the ban list was “metal armor” as many costumers & cosplayers wear metal armor, including Star Wars & medieval costumers & cosplayers.

Other Controversial Rule & Policy Changes

New York Comic Con

New York Comic Con also created a stir beginning in 2014 when it made its costume & prop policies more restrictive, forcing many costumers & cosplayers to either give up their props at the entrances or abandoning them in the streets leading to the convention. Things became more heated in 2016 at NYCC when they again changed their props & weapons to policy so that only foam & cardboard props & weapons would be permitted:

Prop weapons and prop firearms will be allowed providing they are composed of foam or cardboard only.

In 2017, the prop & weapons policies at NYCC changed somewhat again, reflecting the cosplay rules & policies established by the venue: Madison Square Garden, but the restriction on prop weapons being composed of only foam or cardboard remained in place:

  • All final decisions on costumes entering the facility shall be at the sole discretion of Madison Square Garden security.
  • Your costume must not be wider than 4 feet across, longer than 6 feet, or taller than 8 feet.
  • You MUST be able to easily maneuver your costume over stairs or ramps unassisted. You must be able to sit in your seat while wearing your costume, or plan to take it off once entering the stadium (limited storage space available).
  • You must have unobstructed vision at all times (i.e., must not need to remove a piece of your costume in order to see).
  • Armor cannot pose a threat to others by way of sharpened metal edges, spikes or bladed surfaces.
  • Prop weapons and prop firearms will be allowed providing they are composed of foam or cardboard only. The barrel of all prop firearms must be covered with brightly-colored caps. No bladed weapons, no metal, no wood, no fiberglass, no PVC, no glass, no firearms of any kind including air guns or cap guns.
  • Any bow-type weapons must be unstrung or strung with a low-tensile thread. All prop arrows must have soft, non-metal, blunted tips made out of foam or cardboard only.
  • You may not include liquids, gels, or other substances which could cause a mess. This is at the discretion of Madison Square Garden staff.
  • You may not use smoke effects, fire, explosives, or any other environmental hazard in any capacity.
  • You may display your prop weapons only as costume pieces. Do not swing or brandish your prop in any way that could be considered unsafe or threatening.
  • You may pose with a prop in a brandishing manner, so long as no reasonable person would interpret for anything other than dramatic effect. NYCC and Madison Square Garden staff may stop you at their sole discretion.

Rose City Comic Con (Portland, OR)

In 2017, Rose City Comic Con has instituted additional costuming rule that are causing a stir on social media for some costumers & cosplayers because it doesn’t involve props: it has to do with symbols:

  • Hateful symbols aren’t welcome at Rose City Comic Con. Historical costumes can be great, but reminders of unspeakable atrocities are not appropriate – this goes for Old School Hydra and Red Skull or any other Nazis from entertainment properties. Those figures, while comic-related, are still very much Nazis. As a result, they are 100% banned, always. This includes any sort of “ironic” or satirical costumes that re-appropriate Nazi paraphernalia or gear. You won’t just be banned from that year’s convention. You will be banned from coming to RCCC for life.

This is the first outright ban on Nazi symbology and costumes by a convention to our knowledge. While some are deeply offended by this new rule, which they view as apparent denial of free speech, current sociopolitical events in the United States were likely the reason for the adoption of this rule. In some countries (such as Germany and Austria), the display of any Nazi symbols is illegal.

Like it or not, costumers and cosplayers need to be familiar with a convention’s rules & policies for costumes & props before they attend. Regardless of how any one costumer or cosplayer feels about a particular convention’s rules & policies, always bear in mind that no one is obligated to attend a comic or anime convention. If you are so offended by a convention’s rules and policies, our only advice is simply to not attend. If you do choose to attend, then your costume and any props will have to comply with the convention’s rules & policies if you want to be permitted inside.

References:

Introduction to Sewing

Probably one of the most rudimentary skills for #cosplay & #costuming is #sewing. For those who haven’t sewn anything before, sewing may seem intimidating, but once you know the basics, you’ll feel increasingly more comfortable with sewing and want to take on increasingly complex projects.

One question that may come up is why is it important to learn how to sew at all? Learning how to make your own #costumes will be far less costly in the long run than paying others to make things for you. That by far is probably one of the best reasons to learn how to sew. Next, if you’ve tended to rely on alternative methods for attaching fabric (like staples, hot glue or some other method), sewing will provide the best overall result and will be the strongest result. Even if you’re planning to wear armor, sewing can be invaluable in attaching velcro to strapping that you’ll most likely be using, especially elastic strapping, which needs to be very securely attached to velcro.

There are essentially two ways to sew: by hand and by machine. Sewing by hand is a lot slower than sewing by machine, but there will be times that you’ll need to hand sew something because a machine can’t always be used in all situations. A good example when you can’t use a sewing machine is when you need to sew something onto the back of a glove or onto a sleeve or pant leg. In these situations, unless you want to remove existing seams so that a sewing machine can be used, the best option is to hand sew. Also, if you can’t afford to purchase a sewing machine, you can always hand sew.

Though using a sewing machine may also seem intimidating if you haven’t used one before, there are very good reasons why to use one: it’s a lot faster than hand sewing, it makes evenly-spaced stitches and all modern machines will have multiple types of stitching patterns. For sewing long seams along pants, shirts, skirts, dresses, capes, etc., your best option will be a sewing machine.

The following YouTube video from 2014 & made by MangoSirene is a great introduction to sewing:

Adam Savage Builds C-3PO Backpack for his “Star Wars” Chewbacca Cosplay

Adam Savage is a huge #StarWars fan & loves to #cosplay as iconic character #Chewbacca. To capture the spirit of #TheEmpireStrikesBack, Adam created a C-3PO backpack similar to what Chewbacca wore before he was able to fully reassemble C-3PO, who had been taken apart on the cloud city of Bespin.

In this YouTube video, Adam Savage shows how he put together the C-3PO backpack, complete with animatronics. The video is over 39 minutes long:

Next, here’s the video that Adam Savage shared a month earlier showing him donning the Chewbacca costume with the C-3PO backpack and wearing it incognito at Silicon Valley Comic Con:

2 months before the previous video, Adam Savage had also upgraded his Chewbacca costume bandolier, which he shared on YouTube in February:

DIY: How to Construct A Metal Helmet (Video Tutorial)

For those #costumers & #cosplayers who like metal, here’s a video tutorial of how to make a metal helmet as presented by David Guyton (who provides templates). This is an advanced type of #costuming that requires experience with metal working technique known as “sinking”:

Sinking, also known as doming, dishing or dapping, is a metalworking technique whereby flat sheet metal is formed into a non-flat object by hammering it into a concave indentation.

LED’s and some knowledge of electronics is also needed.

Attaching Rubber Soles to a Spandex Costume

DIY #costuming tutorial: attaching soles to a spandex #costume. If your #cosplay has spandex feet (like #SpiderMan), you can attach rubber soles to the bottom of the feet to make it easier to walk and protect the spandex costume itself.

Bear in mind that once you attach soles to the bottom of your spandex costume, you won’t be able to remove them without damaging the spandex, so you want to be careful how you do it.

At a minimum, the supplies that you’ll need to attach soles are as follows:

  • A pair of rubber-soled boat shoes.
  • Fabric scissors.
  • Shoe-goo (or similar glue, such as E6000, Super Glue, hot glue, Gorilla Glue)
  • A box cutter or exact-o-knife.

Basic instructions:

  1. Using the fabric scissors, carefully cut the uppers of the boat shoes from the rubber soles.
  2. Save the insoles from the boat shoes: you will need these later.
  3. Using the box cutter or exact-o-knife, carefully cut a number of lines into the top side of the rubber soles (the side that your foot will be on). Be careful not to cut all the way through to the bottom of the sole. The cut lines will help the glue to adhere to sole.
  4. Apply glue to the top side of one of the rubber soles (left or right) and spread it around.
  5. Insert the insole from the boat shoes (that you saved earlier) into the foot of your spandex costume that matches the rubber sole that you applied the glue to.
  6. Insert your feet into the spandex costume legs. Make sure that the insole is where you want it to be and that there aren’t any unwanted wrinkles or folds in the spandex fabric.
  7. Place the rubber sole onto the floor and carefully step onto it with the matching foot that has the insole inside and apply equal pressure to help bond the fabric, insole and rubber sole together. Be careful not to get the glue onto your skin.
  8. After you have waited for a while, you can try to carefully slide your foot out of the spandex costume. Place some wadded up paper into the foot and then press something heavy on top of it, like a sack of rice. You could also wrap some rubber bands around the rubber sole and top of the spandex of the foot. This will permit you to walk around while giving the glue more time to set. We recommend 24 hours.
  9. Go back to step 4 and repeat the process with the other foot. You can try starting the other foot before the 1st one is finished, but this ensures that each one will be done well.

This tutorial video by “asleeplessvision” also shows this process. There are multiple, similar “how-to” videos like this on YouTube that you can also reference: